Open Access Minireview Article

Recent Advances and Perspectives of Silver Nanotechnology in Surgery and Dentistry

Andrei Zbuchea, Carmen Chelmuş, Elina Teodorescu, Ştefan Milicescu

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 37-45

Over time, different silver preparations have maintained a sustained interest from the medical community. The article highlights the up-to-date knowledge on qualities, properties and applications of the colloidal silver in the field of surgery and dentistry. It aims to provide a synthesis of current issues regarding the complex action of colloidal silver on burn wounds and analyzes the anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of modern silver releasing systems. The silver nanoparticles have also been implemented in various fields of dentistry, including dental prostheses, implantology, restorative and endodontic dentistry, with very promising results.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Propagation and Callus Induction of Pear (Pyrus communis) Cv. Le-Conte

O. M. Kotb, F. M. Abd EL-Latif, A. R. Atawia, Sherif S. Saleh, S. F. EL-Gioushy

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 1-10

The traditional propagation technique of pear trees by grafting on quince, seedlings or clonal selection of Pyrus communis is not completely satisfactory. This is because of the lack of compatibility with some cultivars, heterogenesis of the pear seedlings and excess growth and also due to the sensitivity of the grafted plants to pear decline. For this the present study was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Horticulture, Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egypt during the period from December 2013 to March 2016 to investigate the effect of different media type Murashige and Skooge (MS), Gamborge (B5) and Woody plant media (WPM) at four salt concentrations (Full, ¾, ½ and ¼) of culture media on micropropagation of pear (Pyrus comumunis) cv. Le-Conte during the establishment stage. Shootlet proliferations were investigated at different concentrations of benzyl amino purine (BAP) and kinetin (Kin) at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l for each, during two successive subcultures. Finally, rooting capacity was studied by various concentrations of indole butyric acid (IBA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) at1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/l on media containing activated charcoal. The culture explants were successfully disinfected by using Colorex 20% for 15 min with 100% survival and 100% free contamination. MS media at full strength was the best culture media that produced shootlet (1.33 shootlet/explant) and shootlet length 3.67 cm with 9.97 leaf/shootlets. Among the different concentrations, 1.0 mg/l BAP showed the highest shoot proliferation of 5.89 and 5.44 shoots per explant at the first and second subculture, respectively. The longest shoot (2.43 and 2.59 cm) was produced in the two subcultures by the treatment combination of 0.25 mg/l BAP. The highest numbers of roots were produced by 1.0 mg/l IAA were 8.0 roots/shootlet and the tallest length of roots were obtained for explants cultured on MS media containing IAA 3 mg/l and use mixture from NAA and 2,4-D 2:2 mg/l to get the highest value of callus formation 100%. Generally, it can be concluded from the obtained results that using Clorox 20% per 15 min at the disinfecting stage and using MS salt at full strength for the establishment stage, then using BAP at 1.0 mg / l to increase the number of shoots at the proliferation stage and using a mixture of NAA and 2,4-D 2:2 mg / l to obtain the highest value of callus formation. Moreover, using IAA at 1 mg / l to obtain the highest number of roots.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiling of Bacteria Isolated from Pre-sterilized Food Samples Used as Substrates for Outdoor Air Quality Assessment

T. Sampson, G. Amaechi, L. O. Amadi

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 11-19

A large proportion of human population spend significant part of their life in the outdoor environment due to activities relating to occupation and other lifestyle related events. This work was carried out fundamentally, to identify the bacterial community influencing the quality of outdoor air, vis-à-vis their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. The research was conducted at the River State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, using pre-sterilized food (yam, pawpaw, and meat) as air sampling substrates, by exposing the samples to air and studied during the wet and dry seasons. The bacterial species were identified using a culture-dependent molecular technique, and the result recorded Escherichia coli (CP040927), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MN177202), Shigella flexneri (EU009189), Salmonella typhi. (CP003278), Bacillus subtilis (EF194103) and Staphylococcus aureus (CP042650) as the predominant bacterial species. E. coli was however the most predominant species with a frequency of 34.3% and 26.7% for the dry and wet season, respectively. It was also observed from the study that the bacterial groups were higher during the wet season (35 isolates) than in the dry season (30 isolates). There was a statistical difference (p < 0.05) between the various substrates and seasons sampled. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates showed that 100% of the isolates were resistant to Ceftazidime, Augmentin, Cefuroxime, Ceftriaxone and Cloxacillin, while Erythromycin, Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Meropenem were active against all the isolates (100%). Results from this study would be useful to public health professionals for deciphering the health risk associated with outdoor air quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Ecotoxicity Potentials of E-Waste Using Selenastrum capricornutum (Microalga), Eisenia fetida (Earth Worm) and Allium cepa (Onion Bulb) as Bioindicators

Bright Obidinma Uba, Ebele Linda Okoye, Blessing Ginika Nweke, Chiamaka Perpetua Ibeneme

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 20-31

Aims: This research work was designed to evaluate the ecotoxicity potentials of e-waste using Selenastrum capricornutum, Eisenia fetida and Allium cepa as bioindicators.

Study Design: Selenastrum capricornutum and Allium cepa bulbs were exposed for 72 h at concentration ranging from 0 mg/L to 100 mg/L while Eisenia fetida were exposed for 48 h and 14 days at sub - lethal concentrations ranging from 0 mg/L to 8.54 mg/Lfor Hp laptop battery and 0 mg/L to 9.34 mg/L for Toshiba battery sample, respectively.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU), Uli Anambra State, Nigeria during May, 2019 - December, 2019.

Methodology: A laboratory scale study was carried out on spent Hp and Toshiba laptop battery samples using microalgal toxicity test, earthworm mortality test and Allium cepa tests.

Results: The result showed that the spent Toshiba battery sample had the most hazardous toxic effect (ErC50 19.58 mg/L; EC50 34.54%; LC50 3.60 mg/kg and 3.16 mg/kg) on the growth rate of S. capricornutum, root growth of A. cepa and E. fetid a survival after the treatment periods. Morphological abnormalities were also observed on the exposed roots of A. cepa. Inhibition (%), biomass change and mortality (%) of all species used were found to be concentration dependent with significant (P < 0.05) strong positive correlation at increasing concentrations.

Conclusion: Thus, the government should enforce strict regulations and heavy fines on industries, which do not practice E - waste prevention and recovery in the production facilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliar Application of Ginger (Zingiber officinales) on Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis quen) of Egg Plant (Solanum melongena l. and Solanum gilo l.)

M. O. Nwachukwu, J. N. Azorji, P. C. Onyebuagu, R. I. A. Nnadozie, M. I. Izundu

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 32-36

A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of foliar application of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on shoot and fruit borer of eggplant Solanum melongena and Solanum gilo in Ihiagwa Owerri. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments replicated four times was used. The data collected included plant height, number of branches, number of flowers, number of leaves, pest population and number of Punctures on the leaves. Experimental treatments used were 0, 20, 40 and 60 grams of ginger fine powders that were produced into liquid spray known as foliar application of ginger (FAG) of 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% concentrations of ginger. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the results while least significant difference was used to separate the means. Results showed that 60% concentration of liquid spray of ginger gave the best results in all the parameters used in accessing the experimental materials followed by 40%, 20% and 0% concentrations respectively. This could be due to high active ingredient found in 60% concentration of FAG of which these include gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone.