Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination and Physicochemical Parameters of Sachet Water Consumed in Bukuru Metropolis of Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Volume 5, Issue 1,
Aim: The study investigated various concentrations of heavy metals present in some sachet water consumed in Bukuru metropolis of Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Twenty five (25) sachet water were obtained from different selling spots and were grouped into five according to their commercially christened names as: SW1, SW2, SW3, SW4 and SW5 with each of these groups having five samples. Metallic concentrations were analyzed using AAS and standard analytical procedure were used to assay for temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid and PH.
Result: The results obtained from this study reveals that lead has a concentration of (0.73± 0.01, 0.75± 0.01, 0.68± 0.01, 0.75± 0.01 and 0.78± 0.01)ppm) for samples of SW1,SW2, SW3, SW4 and SW5 respectively. All of these concentration were relatively higher when compared to the WHO control. Zinc was detected at (0.003±0.2, 0.01±0.4, 008±0.5, 0.003±0.6 and0.005±0.2) ppm for SW1,SW2,SW3,SW4 and SW5 respectively. Iron was detected at (0.002±0.00, 0.03±0.00, 0.05±0.01, 0.03±0.00 and 0.03±0.00) ppm for samples of SW1,SW2,SW3, SW4 and SW5 respectively Iron concentrations were relatively lower in all the samples when compared to the control. Chromium was detected at (0.195 ±0.01, 0.104±0.00, 0.149±0.00, 0.204±0.03 and 0.138±0.00) ppm for samples of SW1, SW2, SW3, SW4 and SW5 respectively. Chromium concentrations were significantly elevated in all the samples relative control. Different concentrations of cadmium were assayed at (0.670±0.01, 0.695±0.01, 0.670±0.00, 0.735±0.01 and 0.628±0.01) ppm for samples of SW1, SW2, SW3, SW4 and SW5 respectively. Cadmium levels were significantly higher in all the groups when compared to the control. Arsenic was detected at (0.160±0.00, 0.120±0.00, 0.320±0.00, 0.060±0.01 and 0.180±0.01) ppm for samples of SW1, SW2, SW3, SW4 and SW5 respectively. They were all significantly higher in concentration relative control. The conductivity, temperature, total dissolved solid and PH values were lower when compared to the control.The dissolved oxygen concentrations were higher in all the water samples relative control.
Conclusion: The outcome of this investigation shows that the metallic characterization of the various branded sachet water do not meet the recommended standard due to elevated concentration of heavy metals beyond the permissible level. The physicochemical parameters were however, very low in concentration except for dissolved oxygen which was relatively high.
- Branded water
- sachet water
- ground water
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