Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Salt Tolerant Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Genotypes at Coastal Belt in Bangladesh

Bilkish Begum, Md. Ehsanul Haq, Rozina Akter, A. K. M. Yousof Harun, Naheed Zeba, Md. Shahidur Rashid Bhuiyan

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 1-10

The experiment was conducted at Golgolia village, Debhata upazila under Satkhira District of Bangladesh during the period from November 2015 to March 2016.This study was conducted to identify salt tolerant genotypes by analyzing the agromorphognic traits to identify the best salt tolerant genotypes in coastal belt of Bangladesh. During stressed condition, the plants became stunted, leaves showed chlorosis, fruits became smaller and gradually died. Large amounts of land in southern region of Bangladesh remain uncultivable due to high level of soil salinity. The salinity affected areas of Bangladesh are increasing rapidly. To overcome the salinity problem saline soils can be used to grow salt-tolerant plants. Thus development of salt tolerant crops is a key to agricultural goal. Thirty tomato genotypes were laid out and evaluated under field condition in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Collected data were statistically analyzed using MSTAT-C computer package program. Yield contributing characters like number of cluster per plant was obtained maximum from genotype G8 (27.67/plant), maximum fruits per cluster from G25 (9.00/cluster), fruits per plant from G8 (195.67/plant). Yield per plant and yield per plot was found highest in genotype G27 (3.28 kg/plant & 29.56 kg/plot respectively). G27 genotypes could also be served as parent material for future hybridization or genetic transformation program in Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Estimation of Highly Productive and Healthy Dairy Cows

Ward M. Ashraf, Al Zlitne A. Rabia, Aswehli A. Abdelatef, Alkurdi M. Abdulraouf, Hdud M. Ismail, Elhafi A. Giuma, Jurewicz-Ward Katarzyna

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 1-11

When breeding dairy cattle, evaluation of the animal by the exterior is of paramount importance, since the appearance of the animal and its internal properties are closely related to dairy products. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the most widely used method to assess changes in body fat reserves, which reflects its high potential to be included in on-farm welfare assessment protocols.

Body condition score is an important management tool. The condition of the cow shows if the ration meets the need of the animal. A cow that is fed according to its needs functions optimally. Health problems can be encountered by animals that are too fat (especially at the end of lactation) or too skinny animals (especially at the beginning of lactation). The first livestock farmers who created local livestock breeds by the method of folk selection drew attention to the relationship between the exterior and animal productivity.

The first breeders who created local breeds of livestock by the method of national selection drew attention to the relationship between the exteriors and the productivity of animals. One of the founders of the doctrine of the exteriors, the English cattle breeder R. Beckwell, who created the Shorthorn breed, in the 18th century put forward the idea of creating model animals with the ideal exterior for each direction of productivity. The ideas of Beckwell in Russia were developed by the domestic cattle breeder MG Livanov in the 19th century.

To determine a highly productive animal, the assessment of its exterior type is of great importance, since the shape and function of the body are closely related. Assessment of the exterior of cows, despite its well-known subjectivity and conventionality, occupies an important place in dairy cattle breeding. The glomerular assessment of animals on the exterior has been known since ancient times. It arose from the requests of practice and was the first attempt to give an economic assessment of animals in their appearance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability, Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis: Principle Tools to Explore Genotypes of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

Sithi Saha, Md. Ehsanul Haq, Shahanaz Parveen, Firoz Mahmud, Shukti Rani Chowdhury, Md. Harun-Ur-Rashid

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 1-9

To lessen the pressure on staple crops and to combat hidden hunger, vegetable production is the key to success. Massive studies should be conducted regarding genotype selection to gain the desired yield to overcome these global problems. Brinjal is gaining popularity not only as a vegetable crop but also for its medicinal value. Despite this, the yield and nutritional potentials of brinjal genotypes remain underexploited in many parts of the world. In this study, brinjal genotypes were explored through genetic variability, correlation, and path coefficient analysis to combine yield along with yield contributing variables. Ten quantitative characters of twelve genotypes in a completely randomized design were investigated in this research work at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, from October 2013 to March 2014. In this study, PCV was found slightly higher than the GCV, which suggested the influence of the environment on the variability of these traits. Characters with a lower difference in GCV and PCV value could be improved by following phenotypic selection. Broad-sense heritability, coupled with moderate to low genetic advance was recorded in fruit length, average fruit weight, plant height and days to maturity. These traits were proposing the predominance of additive gene action. Days to first flowering, secondary branches per plant, fruit length and fruit diameter exhibited positive genotypic correlation with fruit yield per plant. In the case of path analysis, secondary branches per plant proposed maximum direct effect on the yield on both genotypic and phenotypic level followed by average fruit weight and fruit length. To explore interrelations among brinjal genotypes for gaining optimum yield variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis act as prime tools for which this study was conducted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Salt Tolerant Genotypes Based on Physiological and Nutritional Traits of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Md. Ehsanul Haq, Rozina Akter, Bilkish Begum, M. M. Uzzal Ahmed Liton, Manna Salwa, Nahida Sultana, Syed Arvin Hassan, Sheikh Mohammad Shakilur Rahaman

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 1-11

A pot experiment was conducted to observe the performances of fifteen tomato genotypes under three different salinity treatments in the net house of Genetics and Plant Breeding Department of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during November 2013 to March 2014. Two factorial experiment included fifteen tomato genotypes viz. G1 (BD-7289), G2 (BD-7291), G3 (BD-7298), G4 (BD-7748), G5 (BD-7757), G6 (BD-7760), G7 (BD-7761), G8 (BD-7762), G9 (BD-9011), G10 (BD-9960), G11 (BARI Tomato-2), G12 (BARI Tomato-3), G13 (BARI Tomato-11), G14 (BARI Hybrid Tomato-4), G15 (BARI Hybrid Tomato-5) and three salinity treatments T1 (Control), T2 (8 dS/m), T3 (12 dS/m) were outlined in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Seedlings of 30 days were transplanted to main plastic pots, and two salinity treatments 8 dS/m and 12 dS/m were applied after 7 days of transplanting. The results displayed that tomato genotypes and salinity treatments both significantly different from the physiological and nutritional traits of the tomato plant. Nearly all traits responded negatively as the salinity level increased except Na+ content, brix (%) and vitamin-C content. Lycopene content increased in genotype G13 and G11 from slightly saline to moderate saline soil respectively. Brix (%) increased and was maximum in G10 genotype, and vitamin-C content was the highest in genotype G14 at moderate salinity. Therefore, genotype G14 and G11 could be recommended for high vitamin-C and lycopene content to the farmers for cultivation under slightly saline to moderate saline soil in the coastal regions of Bangladesh. These genotypes could also be served as parent material for future hybridization or genetic transformation program.

Open Access Review Article

Natural Pesticides (Biopesticides) and Uses in Pest Management- A Critical Review

Oguh C. E., Okpaka C. O., Ubani C. S., Okekeaji U., Joseph P. S., Amadi E. U.

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 1-18

This paper focuses on new types of biopesticides, examine the specificity to harmful pests, and the selectivity to beneficial animals. Many of the modern pesticides used today, persist in soil for years and compound the store of toxins in the soil, air and water. The toxic build-up of these chemicals has been shown to cause damage in animals, plants, human health and are not easily degradable in the environment. Study has shown that some plants contain components that are toxic to insects and pest called biopesticides or natural pesticides. Natural pesticides are pesticides made by organisms usually for their own defense, or are derived from a natural source such as plant, animal, bacteria, and certain mineral, use to control pest naturally with less effect or no effect. Examples of these natural pesticides are Rotenone (Derris sp.), carboxin, fluroacetate, nicotine, neem (Azadiracta indica), microbial pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis, and pyrethrins. Natural pesticides usually target specific sites in the insect such as nervous system, resulting in knock-down, lack of coordination, paralysis and death. Rotenone inhibits the transfer of electron from NADH to ubiquinone, it disrupts energy metabolism by inhibition of the electron transport system (ETS) and blockage of ATP synthesis in the mitochondria. Nicotine inhibits and compete with neurotransmitter by binding to acetylcholine receptors at the nerve synapses and causing uncontrolled nerve discharge. Fluoroacetate and carboxin inhibits the citric acid cycle by binding to aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase respectively. Pyrethrin exerts their toxic effect by disrupting the sodium and potassium ion exchange process, which interrupt the normal transmission of nerve impulses. Most botanical pesticides shows their effect through contact, respiratory, or stomach poisons to the target organism. Botanical pesticides are generally highly bio-degradable, and they become inactive within hours or a few days and can easily be broken down by stomach acids in mammals, so toxicity to humans and animals is very low to non-target organisms and are ecofriendly. Since they are also very effective, natural pesticides should be the first choice for pest management, which in turn reduces the bioavailability of metal and noxious effect in the environment. This review explains the major natural pesticides, mechanism, mode of action and origin.