Open Access Short communication

Accessory Machine Used for Single-phase Complex Agro Technology

Zoran S. Veselinovic

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 13-18

Accessory machine for single-phase complex agro-technology serves the sowing operation, and before that, and prepares the soil, which regulates all necessary physical and biological conditions for optimal growth and yield. With this physical operation, through the development, erosion, mixing and homogenization of the soil, the number of passages is reduced to only one, and the reduction is reduced to a minimum, factors which affect the physical, biological and chemical properties of the soil are preserved and enhanced.In addition to the precise individual laying of each seed, except for the desired depth, this machine in the seed mode, apart from the desired depth, performs their horizontal arrangement along the entire surface in the required spacing. The layers of the multilayer compaction and the handling of homogenized soil are arranged in a good arrangement and the connection of seeds and soils, faster germination and achieve the requirements of certain species for the compactness of the soil under and above the laid seeds.A homogenized distribution of nutrients throughout the cross-section is performed and a proper schedule of starting doses in-depth, protective serum, growth bioregulators and aggregate structuring.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activities and GC-MS Analysis of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Pluchea dioscoridis and Withania somnifera Medicinal Plants

Ahmed H. M. El-Said, Yassmin M. Shebany, Mohamed A. Hussein, Eman G. EL-Dawy

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 1-12

Twenty three genera (46 species and 2 species variety) of endophytic fungi were isolated and identified from the leaves of Pluchea dioscoridis and Withania somnifera on GPY agar medium at 28°C. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Setosphaeria were the most common genera isolated from P. dioscoridis and W. somnifera. The extracts of isolated endophytic fungi were tested for antimicrobial activities against nine strains of pathogenic bacteria and seven isolates of phytopathogenic fungi by disc diffusion method. Extracts of endophytic fungal showed antibacterial activity by different degrees ranged between highly, moderate, narrow, weak and non-active but, didn’t had effect on tested fungal isolates. Alternaria alternata and Microascus trigonosporus were chosen from the most potent antibacterial fungi to determine the antibacterial ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis from which seventeen and twenty nine compounds were identified, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Lead (II) Acetate 3-Hydrate Neurotoxicity Alters Neurocognition and Induced Depressive-like Behavior Via 5-Hydroxytryphtamine, Neurohormone Melatonin and (Na+,K+)-ATPase Activity in Female Wistar Rats

Olusegun G. Adebayo, Iheanyichukwu Wopara, Benneth Ben-Azu, W. Aduema, Oluwakemi R. Adebayo, Omeje U. Nicodemus

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 31-40

Aims: Lead (II) acetate 3-hydrate also known as lead acetate is a neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones causing damage to the nervous system of the human body. Hence, this study investigated the effect of short-term administration of Lead (II) Acetate 3-hydrate on serotonin, melatonin, (Na+, K+)-ATPase enzyme activity and neurocognition.

Methodology: Female Wistar rats (150-200 g b.wgt) were divided into groups (n=14). Control group (n=7) received 0.5 ml of normal saline and the treated group (n=7) were administered lead (II) acetate 3-hydrate at 100mg/kg for seven (7) days intraperitoneally (IP). Serotonin (5-HT), Melatonin and Sodium/Potassium-Adenosine Triphosphate [(Na+, K+)-ATPase] enzyme was investigated in the brain tissue and neurobehavior: Tail suspension test (TST), Forced swimming test (FST) and Novel object recognition test (NORT) were investigated. Body weight of the rats was also taken daily.

Results: The result obtained revealed significant (P<0.05) decrease in body weight in the treated group. Neurobehavioral results investigated showed a significant (P<0.05) increase immobility time both in FST and TST and a significant (P<0.05) decrease in retention latency in the NORT. The biochemical analysis reveals a significant (P<0.05) increase level of serotonin (5HT), but melatonin and (Na+, K+)-ATPase enzyme activity decreased significantly (P<0.05) when compared with the control group.

Conclusion: This current study shows that lead (II) acetate 3-hydrate affect neurocognition and can possibly initiate depressive-like behavior via melatonin and serotonin imbalance and also tampering with the (Na+, K+)-ATPase mechanism in the brain mitochondria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rheology and Functional Properties of Complementary Food Made from Maize (Zea mays) Supplemented with Crayfish (Euastacus spp) and Carrot (Daucus carota) Flour

N. N. Umerah, N. M. Oly-Alawuba, A. I. Asouzu, C. G. U. Oluah

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 41-48

Background: Studies have shown that inadequate or lack of suitable complementary feeding is the major cause of PEM and micronutrient deficiency that leads to growth faltering and high rates of infection during infancy and early child hood.

Objective: To evaluate the rheology and functional properties of complementary food made from local food blends.

Methods: One kilogram (1kg) each of maize, crayfish and carrot were purchased from Ogbete main market Enugu, Nigeria. The maize, crayfish and carrot flours were blended and coded in the ratio of 100:0:0, 70:25:5, 70:20:10, 70:15:15, 70:10:20 and 70:5:25 respectively and used to produce porridges. The porridges were evaluated for rheology and functional properties using standard methods.

Results: The pasting properties of the porridges were Peak viscosity 90.73-92.31 RVU, trough viscosity 31.42-59.91 RVU and breakdown viscosity 42.87-67.03 RVU. The water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, swelling index, gelation temperature and swelling capacity of the flour ranged between 33.41-120.56%, 1.02-1.11g/ml, 1.36-5.62%, 42.53-72.50%, 47.67-90.71% and 3.80-8.27% respectively. 

Conclusion: The study revealed that acceptable and nutrients dense porridge can be produced from blends of maize, crayfish and carrot flour which could be used as alternative to expensive commercial products to improve nutritional status of infants and growing children.

Open Access Review Article

Genetic Improvement Strategy of Indigenous Cattle Breeds: Effect of Cattle Crossbreeding Program on Their Reproductive Performances

Teweldemedhn Mekonnen, Meseret Selam

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 19-30

The aim of the review is to summarize the fragmented information on the effects of cattle crossbreeding on reproductive performance of cattle in different parts of the globe. The performance of animals depends not only on their genetic merit but also on other factors such as feeding, health management and other environmental factors. All breeds have strong and weak traits; there is no single best breed in all traits. Crossbreeding native cattle of Bosindicus type and exotic Bostaurus cattle is now a widely used method of improving reproduction of cattle in the tropics and subtropics. Crossbreeding is the reverse of inbreeding and is economically important practice in livestock breeding. Crossbreeding is an attractive option for livestock genetic improvement because of the quick outputs obtained. Crossbreeding is a crucial genetic improvement option for the lowly heritable traits of animals such as fertility of cows. Crossbreeding programme should respect the principle of “the right animal in the right place”. Under extensive management system of the tropics and subtropics, exotic cattle blood level inheritance should be from 50-62.5% for a maximum reproductive efficiency. Reproductive efficiency is a determinant factor for dairy and beef production efficiencies.Crossbreeding of highly productive and adapted breeds can improve overall performance. Heterosis is highest in F1 generation than in F2, F3 and F4 crossbred generations because the heterosis level is halved in each of the subsequent generations. Backcrossing reduces heterosis effects and thus reduces the advantages obtained from heterosis. However, it should be emphasized that heterosis cannot improve all traits, for example,carcass traits such as rib-eye area, marbling and meat tenderness. Calving interval affects total milk production of the dairy herd and the number of calves born, and is the most important index of reproductive performance.