Open Access Original Research Article

Bioprospecting Filamentous Fungi from Araucaria Moist Forests and the Pampa Biome: High Amylase Production with a Potential Industrial Application

Thiago M. Pasin, Eliano A. Moreira, Mariana Cereia, Maria de Lourdes T. M. Polizeli

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 1-6

Background and Research Aims: Microorganisms, especially fungi, are used in the production of enzymes which are applied in industries to decrease the costs of production as well as to increase the speed and quality of final products. Amylases are among the most studied and widely used enzymes in industrial processes involving the textile industries, production of paper, detergent, glucose/fructose syrups, and ethanol. According to these characteristics, this work aimed to collect, isolate and perform the screening of filamentous fungi from Brazilian Araucaria moist forests and the Pampa biome.

Methodology: Different samples were collected from different environmental areas formed by the Araucaria moist forests and the Pampa biome, which are the characteristic vegetation comprising the south region of Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina. Fungi were isolated by the plating method and separated by observing changes in morphology. Then screening was performed in Khanna liquid medium which was filtrated to extract the extracellular enzymes and determine amylase activity by DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid).

Results: Sixteen morphologically different filamentous fungi were isolated from this collection, which proves the high variability of fungi species that have the Araucaria moist forests and the Pampa biome as their habitat. Three of the isolated fungi (10C, 18A, and 18L) were selected as good amylase producers with great potential for future biotechnological applications.

Conclusion: According to the data obtained in this work, fungi 10C, 18A, and 18L have promising biotechnological potential, since these microorganisms have a high enzyme production in stationary conditions after 5 days of growth. This is a fundamental characteristic of amylase technologies. Also, it is extremely necessary that a change of mind occurs and people become aware of these unique environments in the world, so that, they can be preserved and the species found there can be seen as important mechanisms of industrial and technological innovation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genomic Characterization of Bacteria and Fungi Associated with Palm Wine (Raphia raphia and Elaeis guineensis) in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

T. Sampson, C. J. Ugboma, G. C. Disegha, A. T. Ebele

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 15-24

Palm wine has been severally reported for its nutritional, medical, religious and social uses in Nigeria. The ever increasing importance of this product has resulted in an increased demand and consumption of the product. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the pattern of microbial contamination of palm wine of different origin. In the present study, the genomic characterization of bacterial and fungal isolates associated with palm wine (Raphia Raphia and Elaeis guineensis) was carried out using classic microbiological procedures. The bacterial and fungal species were isolated on standard microbiological media, followed by the Sanger method for their genomic identities. The data obtained indicated the presence of several species of bacteria such as Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus altitudinis, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus amyloliquef. The molecular characterization also revealed the fungal isolates included Pichia species. Results of enumeration of the microbial population revealed the association of palm wine from oil Elaeis guineensis with higher counts of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) and total heterotrophic fungi, THF (2.67 x 104 cfu/ml and 1.64 x 103 cfu/ml, respectively) as against palm wine from Raphia raphia (raphia palm) with values of 1.58 x 104 cfu/ml and 1.60 x 103 cfu/ml, for THB and THF, respectively. The microbiological quality of the palm wine samples reported in this study has accentuated some industrial and health importance of the product.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Vitro Propagation of some Pear Rootstocks

Omayma M. Ismail, Farid M. Rohim, Amira A. Fouad, Chunqing Ou, Yanjie Zhang, Fei Wang, Shuling Jiang

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 25-33

The rootstock is very important to the growth and development of the tree as a necessary part of a grafted fruit tree. In this study, seeds of several pear species were collected for tissue culture, its germination, subculture and micro-propagation were investigated. The chilling requirement of different wild pear species also were compared to select the rootstock strains which need low chilling requirement and more suitable under Egypt condition. Three different media were tested for multiplication M1: BA at 2mg/l + Kin at 1mg/l + NAA at 1mg/l, M2: 2ip at 1mg/l + Kin at 0.5 mg/l + IBA at 0.5 mg/l, M3: BAP at 4 mg/l + TDZ at 1mg/l + IBA at 1mg/l.in ten pear rootstocks. It was different response among different rootstock genotypes in number of shoots and shoot length. The media M1 and M3 were recorded the higher value of shoot number, while M2 were recorded the highest value of shoots length. For rooting stage different concentration of IBA (1, 2 and 3 mg/l) and IAA (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/l) were tested and the result showed that, low concentration of IBA or IAA were more suitable for rooting percentage and root number, and the effect of IBA on rooting were better than IAA. Pyrus. betulifolia and P. calleryana had the highest rooting percentage and the IBA 1 mg/l was the best medium. In vitro propagation of some wild pear rootstocks can be achieved, different growth regulators of auxin and cytokinin had effect on pear proliferation stage. In the rooting stage, the low concentration of IBA were better than high concentration and IAA. P. betulifolia, P. calleryana and P. serrulata were high in survival percentage and were more suitable for in vitro propagation of pear rootstocks in Egypt, moreover they had low chilling requirement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Analysis of Sedative Potential of PREP1 Gene in Mangifera Indica Flower as a Remedy for Insomnia

T. Blessing, A. I. Alhaji, G. A. Ajibade, Y. Magaji

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 34-39

Aims: The study was aimed at the molecular characterization of the flower of Mangifera indica for the presence of Pre-sequence Protease 1 gene.

Place and Duration of Study: The fresh flower of Mangifera indica (Mango) were collected using secateures and taken to the Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defense Academy, Kaduna for specific identification and authentication.

Methodology: AccuPrep Genomic RNA Extraction Kit (K-3032) was used for the extraction of the RNA from the flower of Mangifera indica. Molecular weight of the marker gene was used in indicating a high presence of PREP1 gene in Mangifera indica flower.

Results: A high presence of PREP1 gene in Mangifera indica flower was detected using the molecular weight of the amplified bands.

Conclusion: A high presence of PREP1 gene in Mangifera indica flower is a sign of the possibility that the plant sample can feature in the future as a better remedy for treatment of insomnia.

Open Access Review Article

Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Various Tissues of Fish and Their Human Health Risk Assessment

Maryam Jamil

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 7-14

Heavy metals are used in a wide range of industries, agriculture, food processing, and domestic applications. Metals are unusual among industrial and environmental contaminants in that they are not generated or damaged by humans, but rather transported and changed into a variety of goods. The purpose of this review study is to look at the varied effects of heavy metals on aquatic organisms. Polluted locations that receive effluents from industrial, agricultural, municipal, and household garbage. Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Cd > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > As were the metals in order of abundance. The majority of research concluded that important metals (Zn, Fe, Mn , and Cu,) are abundant in aquatic species, whereas non-essential metals are few. Fish and aquatic creatures are utilized as bio-monitoring species in heavy metal contamination, according to this review. Such research, both in relations of human health and the assessment of metal contamination in aquatic environments, should be ongoing.