The milk and the soft cheese (wara) produced from tigernut were stored in the refrigerator and samples for microbiological analyses were collected at day one, seven and fourteen. Bacterial load of tigernut milk during storage increased from 1.5 101 to 1.8 101cfu/mL while the bacterial load of cheese ranged from 9.7 cfu/g to 1.2 101 cfu/g. There was no significant increase (p≤0.05) in the bacterial load of the cheese during storage. The bacterial isolates from freshly prepared tigernut milk were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus casei, L. plantarum and Streptococcus lactis. The bacteria isolated from the cheese produced using different coagulants are L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, Bacillus badius, B. larvae, B. alvei, Aeromonashydrophili, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sensory scores revealed various significant differences in all the parameters evaluated on tigernut milk and cheese. Highest taste and texture were recorded for all the cheese produced while commercial cheese had the lowest taste and texture. This study revealed that tigernut milk and cheese produced from it possess low microbial load and good sensory quality. Tigernut milk may therefore serve as a good alternative to cow milk for the production of cheese.
Evaluation of sexual dimorphism is one of the important sources of information in the development of strategies to manage Anak broiler breeds in the cool tropical climate of Jos, Plateau State. While descriptive statistics and correlation analysis are utilized extensively, the use of principal component analysis (PCA) for this type of data analyses is unexplored. PCA was use to map the variations in male and female Anak® broiler birds. Data utilized for this study were obtained from male and female Anak broiler birds reared at National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State. Body weights showed sexual dimorphisms from six weeks through eight weeks and the males recorded significantly (P < .05) higher body weights than females. Our results showed that bodyweight is positive and strongly correlated to biometric in Anak® male and female broiler birds. Female birds showed higher response (97.38%) in variance than the male birds (93.5%) with two components extracted. Results of this study suggest that sexual dimorphism existed in biometric traits and decisions on the management of Anak® broiler birds should be handled separately.
Open dump site has become a major challenge in maintaining a pollution free environment in most rural and suburban areas. The present study was aimed toward investigating the effect of seasonal variation on metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, and Zn) concentration in soil obtained from Ugwuaji solid waste dump sites in Enugu state. Standard procedures and techniques were employed in the study. Using circular plot method, soil samples were collected from the study area at depth 0 to 15 cm, 15 to 30 cm, and 30 to 45 cm during the dry (November, December, January) and wet (April, May, June) season. The results of the findings showed reduction in soil pH, CEC, SOM and moisture content during the dry season [5.65 pH.H2O, 11.8 cmol/kg, 388.2 g/kg, and 8.12 % respectively] compared to the wet season [6.75 pH.H2O, 13.8 cmol/kg, 458.2 g/kg, 16.1 %]. The concentration of metals increased progressively during the period of assessment in the order: November> December>January>April>May>June. During the dry season metal concentration was highest in soil sample from depth 0 to 15 cm and least in soil sample from depth 30 to 45 cm. In contrast, during the wet season metal concentration was highest in soil sample from depth 30 to 45 cm and least in soil sample from depth 0 to 15 cm. The concentration of all the metals investigated were above WHO maximum permissible limit for both seasons. The concentrations of the metals investigated were observed in the following order Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Hg > Cd. The research study has indicated that soil from the study area (Ugwuaji waste dumpsite) are polluted by the heavy metals.
The practice of open dumping of solid wastes is becoming very common, irrespective of the dangers it poses to the environment and to humans. The present study is aimed at assessing the heavy metal and physicochemical properties of soil in Ugwuaji solid waste dumpsite during the dry season; using standard techniques. Using circular plot method, soil samples were collected from the study area at depth 0 to 15 cm, 15 to 30 cm, and 30 to 45 cm during the months of November, December and January. The results of the findings showed reduction in most of the soil physicochemical properties such as: soil pH, CEC, clay, silt, TOC, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and moisture content [5.65 pH.H2O, 11.8 cmol/kg, 14.2 %, 17.7 %, 388.2 g/kg, 0.96 g/kg, 57.8 mg/kg, 0.88 cmol/kg and 8.12 % respectively]. High SOM was observed (234.3 g/kg) and the soil textural class was observed to be sandy-loam. The concentration of heavy metals observed reduced progressively from November to January. The metal concentration was observed in the order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Hg > Cd. The study concluded that the presence of heavy metals in soils from Ugwuaji dumpsite affects the soil physicochemical properties.
Drought is one of the limiting factors to annual maize production worldwide, as every year, about 15 to 20% of maize yield is lost to drought. Improvement in maize drought tolerance has always been one of the main objectives of a plant breeder. Measurement of physiological and morphological characters related to drought tolerance might prove very useful. The main objective of this study is to assess the markers, physiological and morphological traits, as well as molecular markers, which are considered as primary indices of drought tolerance mechanism. Maize, being a C4 crop, has a great mechanism of drought tolerance. Severe water stress may result in hampering photosynthesis, disturbing the overall metabolism, and finally leading to necrosis of the plant.
Similarly, other factors such as membrane stability, Chlorophyll contents, leaf area, delayed senescence, and rooting system are the most important markers to identify a crop plant in drought conditions. The final portion of this review discussed molecular markers and DNA marker-assisted selection which have become an amazing option for drought analysis in the maize crop. In this study at the Research Institute of Agrarian Business, about 113 maize lines were selected. With PCR using two Molecular Markers, dhnC397 and rspC1090, the polymorphic SNP sites of dhn1 and rsp41 were determined. As a result of this, using dhnC397, a 164-bp segment was found at the dhn1 site. For a genotype, carrying (CCA AGG) variants, PCR products were digested by using StyII restriction enzyme resulting in 02 bands, 131-bp and 33-bp. A similar approach was used for the identification of rsp41 gene polymorphism. Passing through the HpaII restriction enzyme, resulted in 02 bands, 225-bp and 61-bp. The alleles produced by using PCR and restriction enzymes are associated with drought resistance in maize. In this study, the alleles associated with drought resistance were identified in about 68 lines out of 113 by using these molecular markers. This concept can be used for breeding drought-resistant maize hybrids as well.