Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Allele Distribution of CYP1A2 Gene rs762551 Polymorphism on Caffeine Metabolism in Healthy Individuals

Funda Nur Çelik, Eyyüp Deniz, Esra Pektaş, Öznur Özge Özcan, Tolga Polat, Canan Sercan Doğan, Korkut Ulucan, Mesut Karahan

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 1-8

Aims: The aim of the study was to determinate the CYP1A2 gene rs762551 polymorphism responsible for caffeine in healthy individuals.

Study Design: DNA was isolated from saliva samples taken from healthy individuals. Analysis of A and C allele distribution of CYP1A2 gene rs762551 polymorphism was performed by amplifying DNA regions from individuals.

Place and Duration of Study: It was carried out between February 2019 and April 2020 in Üsküdar University Medical Genetics and Molecular Diagnosis Laboratory.

Methodology: Thirty healthy individuals without age, gender, height and weight restrictions were included in our study. DNA analysis was performed on the Real-Time PCR device by taking saliva samples from individuals.

Results: The genotype distribution of this study was 13 people (43.33%) had AA, 9 people had AC (30%) and 8 people have a CC genotype (26.67%) respectively. According to the results of the study, individuals with the AA genotype are in the majority, but since there are more individuals with the C allele, those who metabolize caffeine slowly are in the majority. In our study, statistical analysis was not performed because it was aimed only to determine the allele gene distribution.

Conclusion: Studies show an association between caffeine and disease. However, the genetic reasons for this relationship have not been fully understood yet. Therefore, more studies are needed on larger samples of genes that metabolize caffeine. Caffeine-related diseases can be prevented by detecting variations on caffeine genes of healthy individuals with more studies in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Butyryl-cholinesterase Inhibitory Effect of Ficus platyphylla Root Methanolic Extract on Catfish Exposed to Arsenic

I. M. Hassan, A. I. Ja’afaru

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 16-26

The purpose of this study was to test the effect of Ficus platyphylla ROOT on Butyryl-cholinesterase in Clarias gariepinus. Extraction of the root was carried out with 80 percent methanol. Initially, adult catfish were subjected to a toxicity analysis at the doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 M for arsenic and 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 g/L for the crude extract. This is followed by chronic toxicity and determination of Butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory effect using Ellman's approach in the fishes. Fishes where divided into 4 groups, group 1 was treated with 125 g/L of the extract, group 2 was treated with 0.5 M arsenic, group 3 was treated with 125 g/L of crude extract for 24 hours and the exposed to arsenic, group 4 was maintained in 0.1% Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Results showed the LC50, 70, and 90 of 0,53, 0,67 and 0,95 M for arsenic and 346.7, 1148.2 and 6760 g/L for the crude extract. There is elevated crude extract cholinesterase inhibitory activity with high significant different at p<0.05) between the group treated with crude extract alone, the group treated with crude extract and exposed to arsenic, the group exposed to arsenic alone and the group maintained in tap water. It can be inferred that the medicinal effects of this crude extract are caused by low toxicity and the high cholinesterase inhibitory activity of the crude extract. Toxicity screening of this crude extract on mammals such as mice and rats is recommended in order to reaffirm their toxicity profile.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fermentative Enzymes Production Efficiency of Ethanologenic Bacteria Isolated from Raphia Palm Sap

O. A. Ayanshina, M. N. Igwo-Ezikpe, N. O. A. Imaga, T. O. Ajasa, O. Adeboye, I. A. Odjokpa, S. E. Agbale, O. C. Okafor, F. N. Onyekawa

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 27-48

Background: Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) candidate construction remains gray in the biotechnology of bioethanol production; and recent lead way involved genetic transformation of competent cells with ethanologenic and/or cellulolytic characteristics from natural microorganisms.

Aim: As part of an ongoing study, the ethanologenic property of natural tropical bacteria population isolated from Raphia palm sap was investigated.

Methods: Freshly tapped Raphia palm sap (PW) sample was obtained from a Raphia palm plantation site at Elemu Bus-stop, Jakande, Isolo, Lagos State, Nigeria. The morphological and biochemical characteristics (MBC) as well as 16s rDNA genotyping of the bacteria isolated from PW were used for identification. A representative α–keto acid decarboxylase (pyruvate decarboxylase -PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) productivities of the isolated bacteria in glucose supplemented media were determined by spectrophotometry.

Results: The combination of MBC and 16s rDNA genotyping of the PW bacteria revealed about 6 isolates that were phylogenetically related to Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Paenibacillus validus, Macrococcus spp., Yokenella resenberghei; and Brevibacillus brevis. Meanwhile, efficient PDC productivity (0.5-1.8U/mL) was observed for Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis at pH 10.0, 25°C, 2.0g substrate concentration, NaNO3 as nitrogen source, and 72 hours incubation period. Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis efficiently produced ADH (0.5-2.0U/mL) optimally at pH 10.0, 25°C, 1.0g substrate concentration, peptone as nitrogen source, and 96 hours incubation period.

Conclusion: The Raphia palm sap microbiota are efficiently ethanologenic. Thus, their genes can be adapted for genetic transformation in consolidated bioprocessing.

Open Access Review Article

Application of Engineered Mussel Foot Protein (MFP) from Some Bivalve Species on Cell and Tissue Culture: Mini Review

Rega Permana, Aulia Andhikawati

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 9-15

Several species of shellfish from the Bivalve class have unique adaptability to attach their self to a substrate as an effort of defense in strong currents. This is possible by the presence of a special protein which able to coordinate strongly with the substrate even underwater, called Mussel Foot Protein (MFP). MFP is a protein composed of 85 decapeptides where the tyrosine residue group undergoes a process to post-translational become 3,4-dihydroxyphenilalanine or DOPA. The development of research that has been carried out has successfully used MFP in various fields including cell and tissue culture. The use of MFP as a matrix in the culture of several cells and tissues showed an increase in cell quality, cell adhesion and cell growth rate. The existence of several optimizations such as adjustment to optimum environmental conditions and the addition of other additives that support the culture process have also been reported. This article will discuss the latest developments related to MFP application in cell and tissue culture along with the optimization efforts that have been reported. Opportunities for future research development related to MFP applications, especially in the field of biotechnology, will also be discussed accordingly.

Open Access Review Article

Molecular Mechanisms of Antibiotics Resistance

Uche J. Ozowara, Ibe Chimela Emmanuel, Chijioke A. Nsofor

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 49-57

Antibiotic resistance has been observed since the discovery of antibiotics, and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics have contributed to the spread of resistance among bacteria species. Antibiotic resistance is encoded by several genes and can be easily transferred between bacteria; which might be owed to the fact that these resistant genes are mostly carried by mobile genetic elements (such as plasmids, integronsand transposons). The origin of antibiotic resistance, types of antibiotic resistance, and the molecular mechanisms of resistance are discussed in this article. The resistance to antibiotics mediated by genes encoded on the chromosome, plasmids, integronsand transposons were highlighted. New improved strategies for sampling and screening microbial population is essential for better understanding of the factors that promotes the dissemination of resistance genes; and to also elucidate the relationships between antibiotic resistance-genes of producer, the environment, and the pathogenic bacteria.