Open Access Minireview Article

Regulatory Role of Nucleus in miRNA Processing at Early Developmental Stages in Plants

Rao Saad Rehman, Syed Ali Zafar, Mujahid Ali, Hassan Bashir, Asad Nadeem Pasha

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 8-11

Nuclear dicing bodies were found in plants as subcellular droplets of the Dicing complex that is involved in the creation of microRNA. They are also discovered to be liquid-liquid phase-separated condensates with intrinsically disordered areas of the Dicing component SERRATE driving phase separation and miRNA processing. This study aims to highlight the Regulatory role of nucleus in miRNA processing at early developmental stages in plants. Environmental and developmental factors may influence the expression of various microRNAs in plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal Potential of Conidia Suspension of Aspergillus flavus against Anopheles sp.

Abdulrahman Itopa Suleiman, Abdullahi Abdulkadir Imam, Nasir Sirajo Sadi, Muhammad Ali Gambo

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 1-7

Aim: This study was aimed to investigate the larvicidal potential of the conidia suspension of Aspergillus flavus against Anopheles mosquitoes.

Methods: Aspergillus flavus was isolated from soil using soil suspension procedures and was identified using morphological characteristics. Bioassay was performed to determine the efficacy of Aspergillus flavus conidial suspension against early 4th instar larvae of Anopheles mosquito using WHO-2005 protocol with slight modifications.

Results: Four different concentrations of conidial suspension; 3.3×106, 3.3×105, 3.3×104 and 3.3×103conidia/ml were tested, and the results showed that; mortality increases with the increase in conidial concentrations and exposure time. The lowest mortality (12%) was recorded at 3.3×103 conidia/mL and 24-hours post exposure whereas the highest mortality (78%) was recorded at 3.3×106 conidia/mL and 72-hours post exposure. LC 50% and 90% for the larvae was found to be 1.6×108 and 4.2×109conidia/mL at 24-hours; 2.0×104 and4.0×105 conidia/mL at 48-hours; 1.3×103 and 3.2×104 conidia/mL at 72-hours.

Conclusion: These results indicated that Aspergillis flavus conidia suspension are pathogenic to immature stage of Anopheles mosquito and could be suggested as a biological control for mosquito management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection and Identification of Plant Viruses Causing Severe Losses in Yam Production in Cross River State, Nigeria

O. I. Eyong, E. E. Ekpiken, O. I. Onen, D. A. Akoli

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 12-18

Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important food crop cultivated for its edible tubers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Surveys were conducted in during the 2022 planting season in Cross River State to detect and identify viruses infecting yams. Twenty-three farms were surveyed located across the three senatorial districts. Sampling was carried out on Dioscorea rotundata, D. cayenensis, D. alata,and D. Dumetorum and tested using the multiplex-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by gene sequence/phylogenetic analysis. The 23 samples tested positive for multiplex-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).  Eight samples tested positive for Yam mosaic virus (YMMV), 10 samples tested for Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and 5 samples tested positive for Yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV). The sequence obtained for each sample when compared with other virus sequences available in the NCBI GenBank through BLASTn revealed that CMV was the predominant representing 43.5% of total viruses identified with sequence homologue ranging between 87 and 98% followed by YMV which constituted 34.8% of total viruses identified with sequence homologue ranging from 90 to 98%. YMMV was the least predominant constituting 21.7% of viruses identified with sequence homologue ranging from 90 to 98%. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that YMV clustered together with some potyvirus isolates found within the Africa sub-region while YMMV clustered with other potyviruses outside Africa. This finding explains that YMV recorded a higher percentage of infection than YMMV. This is the first report of wide-scale detection of viruses infecting yams in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Genetic Variation and Chemical Variability in Commonly Available Egyptian and Chinese Garlic

Zeinab A. Abd Elhafez, Omneya F. Abu El-Leel

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 40-54

Three garlic varieties (Sids 40, Sids 50 and Chinese) comparisons of oil composition and genetic variation of three garlic cultivars (Allium sativum L.) commonly used for cooking, pharmaceutical industries and essential oil production in the Egyptian market. Garlic essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and then analyzed for chemical components by GC-MS. Also, Phenolic content, Alliin content and DPPH% radical-scavenging activity (IC50) and determine the genetic diversity in different of the three garlic varieties and to investigate the genetic distances between them were evaluated. The results, in general, indicated that the variety of Sids 40 was distinguished in the studied traits. IC50 value was arranged as follows: Sids 40, Sids 50 and Chinese. The phenol content of the three garlic varieties were arranged in terms of their phenol content from highest to lowest, as follows: Sids 40 (396.50 μg/g), Sids 50 (366.58 μg/g) and Chinese (296.92 μg/g). The highest of Alliin content,  was Sids 40 with a content of 91.53 mg 100/ml, followed by the Chinese variety at a content of 88.70 mg 100/ml, and the least of them was Sids 50 with a content 60.43 mg 100/ml. The highest similarity value (1.00) was recorded between Sids 40 genotypes and Sids 50 genotypes, while the lowest similarity value (0.610) was recorded between China genotypes and Sids 50 genotypes. On the other hand there was no similarity between China genotypes and Sids 40 genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Biological Activities of Cu-Nanoparticles from Aspergillus niger

Syed Bilal Hussain, Romesa Bashir, Sadaf Noor, Muhammad Zubair

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 55-68

Nanotechnology has received tremendous attention because its applications have expanded in a variety of fields. The biological route for the synthesis of nanoparticles become more demanding as it is eco-friendly, low cost, and not time taking procedure. In this research, Aspergillus niger filtrate is used as a reducing agent to biosynthesize copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) under controlled parameters i.e., pH, temperature, and time. Synthesized CuNPs were confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and further characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The UV- Visible spectroscopy exhibit a maximum peak of 540nm which confirmed the formation of CuNPs. FTIR showed two maximum peaks 3339cm-1 and 1638 cm-1. These peaks represent the presence of O-H stretching and –C=C- stretching respectively. The size ranges of CuNPs between 15nm-85nm with spherical shapes. The anti-microbial activity was tested against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and showed the significant antibacterial potential of CuNPs. Radical scavenging activity was confirmed by DPPH assay. The results of antioxidant activity indicated the IC50 value of CuNPs was 59.10ug/ml. Thus, CuNPs synthesized through a biological route could act as good antibacterial as well as antioxidant agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Diversity for Cotton Leaf Curl Disease (CLCuD) and Qualitative Traits among Elite Cotton Cultivars

Syed Bilal Hussain, Laraib Farooq, Muhammad Zubair

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 69-74

Cotton is a major fibrous cash crop cultivated in over 80 countries because the global textile industry depends on it. In Pakistan, the primary factor reducing cotton production is cotton leaf curl disease caused by a begomovirus, a cotton leaf curl virus vectored through the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. This disease shows various symptoms, including vein thickening, stunted plant growth, and cup-shaped outgrowth known as Enation. This study was conducted to analyze the genetic diversity for cotton leaf curl disease among 50 cotton varieties using 10 SSR primers. The results showed that 57 alleles were identified, averaging 5.7 alleles per primer. Maximum Polymorphism was exhibited by the primers NAU 2083 and NAU 2273, having PIC values of 0.8621 and 0.5874, respectively. Phylogenetic tree by neighbor-joining method showed a greater genetic diversity among the cotton genotypes under study suggesting that these cotton varieties can be utilized in future breeding programs for cotton improvement.

Open Access Review Article

African Swine Fever Virus: A Review on Its Heterogeneity, Immunomodulatory Property and Its Extent of Virulence

Jeffrey Mukhim

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 19-39

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a causative agent of a lethal haemorrhagic disease in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), with a mortality rate of 100% at per-acute infections. ASFV have no vaccine available and is contagiously stable with direct transmission through infected swines, and indirectly from soft ticks (Ornithodoros). ASFV, display a complex genetic heterogeneity that invigorates its virulency and replication within host macrophage. Along with the on-going discovery of a clinical vaccine, evaluation and deciphering of the proper innate and cellular response using wild type homologous and heterologous ASFV challenges against pigs immunised with live attenuated ASFV or subunits vaccines of ASFV antigen has been the strategy apart from in-vitro studies using Porcine macrophage (PAMs) infection in culture. The ASFV essential and non-essential genes are involved in viral multiplication and immunosuppression along with stimulation of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore understanding ASFV virulence machinery, the various immune effectors it evokes and its heterogeneity of infection that contributes to the different clinical manifestations are important parameters in progression towards the design of an effective vaccine and therapeutics. The major ASFV structural and virulence regulatory components in host evasion; along with immunisation experiments are comprehensive retrospections in ASFV infection and cure.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of CRISPR/Cas9 for Genetic Advancement of Soybean: A Review

Muhammad Naveed, Jazib Javed, Usama Waheed, Maham Sajid, Mehrab Ijaz, Areeba Sehar, Mazhar Attique, . Mahnoor, Salman Javed

Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Page 75-88

Soybean is a crucial legume crop that is mainly grown for extracting oil and protein content Which can be used as a food source for human beings as well as livestock. We can also use the protein obtained from soybean for the extraction of biofuel. There is a dire need to increase genetic research on soybean for improvement and enhanced production. One big reason for genetic research on soybean is to make its resilience to the change in the climate. In modern days CRISPR/Cas9 has evolved as an emerging technique that allows us to manipulate the gene of selected traits in most crops including soybean. Advanced tools of biotechnology are widely utilized for the enhancement of crop production, improving quality and yield, introducing disease and insect resistance, and being environmentally friendly. This review gives a glimpse of how the mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9 performs its functions and a brief discussion of CRISPR/Cas9 which has increased the scope of study in the genetic advancement of soybean. It also illustrates some phenomena in which we can use CRISPR/Cas9 for the betterment of soybean.