Introduction: Paecilomyces formosus is a geographically widespread entomopathogenic fungus that produces infectious conidia against Anopheles mosquito larvae, which curtail the uprising resistance of mosquitoes against synthetic insecticides. These mosquitoes are known vectors of human and animal pathogens, millions of people are killed by mosquito-borne diseases every year such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Zuka, yellow fever, encephalitis and filariasis.
Aim: This study investigated the spores and extract sourced from entomopathogenic (Paecilomyces formosus) fungal isolates as potential biolarvicide of Anopheles mosquitoes.
Methods: The conidia and extract bioassays were conducted according to WHO-2005 protocol with slight modification. The most active extract ethylacetate was characterized using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy.
Results: From the conidia bioassay, The LC50 mortality of the larvae was found to be 1.4×104 conidia ml-1 at 24 hrs 6.1×105 conidia ml-1 at 48hrs 8.8×104 conidia/ml at 72 hrs. Solvents used for the extract bioassay includes; Diethyl-ether, Chloroform and Ethyl-acetate of which, Ethyl-acetate extract is found to be most active (LC50s; 101.5 μg/ml, 735.6 μg/ml, 769.0 μg/ml after 48-hours post exposure time.
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopic analysis of ethyl-acetate extract showed 6 major compounds (R.T) 3, 4-Altrosan (9.14), I, 6-anhydro-β-glucopyranose (9.30), Pentanoic acid (10.97), methylpropandioic acid (9.69), Cyclobutanol (10.97), and Diethylpropylmalonate (15.63).
Conclusion: These results indicated that Paecilomyces formosus spores and extracted secondary bioactive metabolites could serve as promising lead organism for the development of potential novel and effective insecticidal compounds.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of ripe Carica papaya (pawpaw) fruit peel in adult male wistar rats. Six groups of adult male wistar rats of five rats per group were used for the study. Group 1 was the normal control; Group 2 was induced with liver damage without treatment; Group 3, 4 & 5 were treated with 200, 400 & 600 mg/kg b.w of extract respectively while Group 6 was administered with the standard drug for seven days after which treated groups were administered with CCl4: liquid paraffin (1:1, 2 mL/kg body weight, s.c.). After 30 minutes of administration of the extract and silymarin, animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Serum hepatomarkers and biomarkers of oxidative stress were evaluated using standard procedures. Administration of CCl4 significantly (P<0.05), increased levels of serum hepatomarkers and malondialdehyde but decreased catalase activity. However, administration of the extract caused a dose dependent decrease in the levels of the serum hepatomarkers and malondialdehyde levels. On the contrary, a dose dependent increase in catalase activity was observed. Qualitative phytochemical analysis performed on the sample, revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, phlabotanins terpenes and phenols. It can be deduced from this study that the peel of ripe Carica papaya (pawpaw) fruit could be an embodiment of compounds with hepatoprotective potential.
The existence of genetic variability in plant material is considered to be the basis of crop improvement. A plant breeder finds this variability in various ways to create new crop varieties which are capable of withstanding different types of stresses including drought, temperature, diseases, insect pest attacks and unfavorable soil conditions. Breeders obtain their purpose and target varieties by using different breeding technologies, selection methods and improved approaches. This review presents an effective sketch of conventional and modern breeding technologies. Conventional breeding methods include the introduction, selection methods and hybridization. All these methods are categorized further into different types like mass selection, progeny selection, pure-line selection etc. Similarly, conventional breeding methods of hybridization include a pedigree method, bulk method and backcross breeding method. Among them, the backcross breeding method is being used widely to get better and fast results in a variety of development processes. Using conventional breeding methods, there are many varieties developed in the recent past like "Dirk" and "Penjamo-62" of wheat, "IR-6" variety of rice and "Beechar" of barley. The Final portion of this review explains modern breeding technologies which are being used widely all over the world. These methods are categorized into three different types. These include shuttle breeding, speed breeding and double haploid breeding technologies. Among them, speed breeding reduces the breeding cycle and accelerates the crop research process through rapid generation advancements. This can be carried out in many different ways. One of them includes the extension of the duration of the plant's daily light exposure. In short, we can easily get the targeted results in a short time duration by using modern breeding technologies and selection approaches. The whole concept gives an amazing figure to the new crop researchers in conventional and modern breeding technologies and selection methods.
Microorganisms have been used to assist in the processing of food throughout human history, long before humans realized that these organisms were responsible for the fermentation processes. Alterations are prepared to the genetic makeup of microorganisms to either produce a new protein or other food ingredient, to progress /enhance the production of a present protein/ingredient, or to tailor the characteristics of an existing protein to a new application. Numerous procedures are utilized to roll out hereditary improvements in a microorganism, and the term Genetically Engineered Microorganisms (GEMs) explicitly alludes to microorganisms (i.e., microscopic organisms or growths, including yeasts) that people have altered utilizing in vitro atomic science strategies (otherwise known as Modern Biotechnology) to play out a particular capacity. There are several other methods for altering the genetic structure of microorganisms, but not all of them come under the regulatory categories of genetically engineered or genetically modified. Chemical mutagenesis and interspecies crossing, for example, can be used to change the genetic makeup of a microorganism. GEMs are advancing food production by increasing efficiency, reducing waste and resource requirements, and ultimately enabling beneficial innovations such as the cost-effective fortification of food with essential nutrients, vitamins, and amino acids, and delivery of tailored enzymes to achieve unique food processing capabilities.
Microorganism has been used since the start of human society. Enzyme processing processes are quickly gaining the attention because of their short time of processing, cost effective, non-toxic, low energy input and environment friendly characters as well. Moreover, through protein engineering and recombinant DNA technology, a microorganism can be easily manipulated and cultured in large scale to meet increased demand in different sectors. Therapeutic enzymes have a huge variety of selective uses such as anticoagulants or thrombolytics, oncolytics and also as replacement for various metabolic deficiencies. Proteolytic enzymes are excellent anti-inflammatory agents. There are various factors that decrease the potential of microbial source enzymes, once we enter to medical sciences due to high molecular size of catalyst which stop their distribution within somatic cells. In industrial processes the quantity of enzymes should be high, while in therapeutic case the purity and specificity should be excellent, if the quantity level is less no matter. The kinetics of such enzymes is high and low so that it is maximally efficient even at low concentration of substrate and enzymes. The source of such enzymes should be designated with high care to minimize or prevent the chances of undesirable growth by mismatched material and also to enable ready purification.