Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJBGE/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>). The area of interest of AJBGE includes but not restricted to all aspects of Biotechnology, Genetics, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Bioenergy, Biosafety, Biosecurity, Bioethics, etc. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering) (Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering) Mon, 14 Jun 2021 09:49:51 +0000 OJS 60 Mixotrophic Co-Cultivation of Chlorella lewinii LC172265 and Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC2791 for Efficient Production of Biomass under Static Condition <p><strong>Background: </strong>Microalgae and yeast biomass are sources of many useful metabolites such as proteins, lipids, antioxidants, vitamins and a host of pharmaceuticals. However, efficient production of microalgae biomass requires constant supply of carbon dioxide and removal of photosynthetically generated oxygen. On the other hand, production of yeast biomass requires adequate supply of organic carbon and constant supply of oxygen. It is therefore expected that co-culture of the two microorganisms can be achieved without aeration since the culture will be oxygenated by the oxygen released by the microalgae and carbon dioxide will be supplied by yeast fermentation.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>In the present study, the feasibility of co-cultivation of <em>Chlorella lewinii</em> and <em>Kluyveromyces</em> <em>marxianus</em> for efficient production of biomass without aeration was investigated.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>BG11 medium was used as the basic medium and the effects of nitrogen source on the growth of the cells in monocultures were first investigated. Subsequently, the effects of inoculum ratios and glucose concentrations on the growth of <em>Chlorella lewinii</em>, <em>Kluyveromyces</em> <em>marxianus</em> and total biomass concentrations in co-cultures were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that urea was the best nitrogen source for the growth of the two strains. In their monocultures, the maximum concentrations of <em>C. lewinii</em> and <em>K. marxianus</em> were1.62 x 10<sup>9</sup>cells/ml and 7.719 x10<sup>8</sup>cells/ml, respectively. The optimum inoculum ratio of <em>K. marxianus</em> to <em>C. lewinii</em> was 1:60 and a total cell concentration of 8.25 x10<sup>9</sup>cells /ml was achieved. Although as the initial glucose concentration was increased from 5 g/L to 20 g/L, the total biomass concentration increased, the growth of <em>K. marxianus</em> increased while that of <em>C. levinii</em> decreased. The highest total biomass yield per gram of glucose was obtained with an initial glucose concentration of 5 g/L.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Co-cultures of <em>C. lewinii</em> and <em>K. marxianus</em> is an effective method for production of their biomass without external supply of oxygen and carbon dioxide<strong>.</strong></p> O. J. Chioke, C. N. Ogbonna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 14 Jun 2021 10:36:16 +0000 Evaluating the Assault Caused by Nauclea latifolia on the Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Rats Following Testicular Tissue Damage <p><strong>Background: </strong>The use of herbal products is very common among rural dwellers, although these products posses prophylactic, therapeutic and curative capacities. Unguarded doses most times often result in cellular and tissue damage in the body. This study was undertaken to evaluate the assault caused by <em>Nauclea</em> <em>latifolia</em> on lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and DNA damage assay in Wistar rats following testicular tissue damage.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Forty (40) male Wistar rats divided into eight (8) groups were used for this investigation (n=5). The animals were administered with 3mg of alcohol/kg b.w alone, 5 mg of testosterone/kg b.w, 500 mg of ethanolic leaf extract of<em> Nauclea latifolia</em>/kg b.w, 1000 mg of ethanolic leaf extract of<em> Nauclea latifolia</em>/kg b.w, 1500 mg of ethanolic leaf extract of<em> Nauclea latifolia</em>/kg b.w, 3 mg of alcohol/kg b.w and 500 mg of of ethanolic leaf extract of<em> Nauclea latifolia</em>/kg b.w, 5mg of testosterone and 500 mg of ethanolic leaf extract of<em> Nauclea latifolia</em>/kg b.w and the control received 15 % tween 80 (10 ml of tween 80/kg b.w ) respectively. The experiment lasted for 21 days.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Ethanolic leaf extract of <em>Nauclea latifolia </em>at doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg b.w of rats significantly increased DNA damage and lactate dehydrogenase.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; Increased in these biochemical parameters signify increased tissue damage.</p> Eno-Obong I. Bassey, Jessie I. Ndem, Kingsley A. Okon, Gabriel D. Edem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 25 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization Studies on Cellulase Production by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In this study, two fungal species, <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em> were screened and optimized for their abilities to degrade cellulose using filter paper and Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as substrates.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong>&nbsp; <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>A. fumigatus</em> procured from the Applied Microbiology Unit of Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos were screened using Whatman No. 1 filter paper and Carboxymethylcellulose as substrates in Petri plates. The fungal species abilities to produce cellulase at varying optimization parameters such as incubation periods (5 days), different incubation temperatures (25-50<sup>0</sup>C), different pH(3-9) and different substrate concentration (0.25-2%) using Submerged Fermentation (SmF) were also studied.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The plate assay showed that the two species produced cellulases. The highest cellulolytic activity was shown by <em>A. niger</em> (23±3.22 mm) as it had larger zones of clearance compared to <em>A. fumigatus </em>(13±3.06 mm)<em>.</em> However, the organisms grown on filter paper agar showed better hydrolysis compared to the growth on CMC agar. For the Submerged Fermentation (SmF), enzyme activity increased for the first 98 hours of incubation on filter paper recording 2.62 IU/ml for <em>A. niger</em> and 2.45 IU/ml for <em>A. fumigatus</em> after 48 h and then there was decrease in enzyme activity. For the CMC, the highest enzyme activity was observed at 48 h recording 1.76 U/ml and 1.37 IU/ml for <em>A. niger</em> and <em>A. fumigatus</em> respectively. Maximum enzyme production was observed at incubation temperature of 30 <sup>0</sup>C for <em>A. niger</em> and <em>A. fumigatus</em> recording 1.05 IU/ml and 1.10 IU/ml on filter paper. Enzyme activity was found to be highest at pH 6 with <em>A. niger</em> and <em>A. fumigatus</em> recording 2.27 IU/ml and 2.03 IU/ml respectively on CMC broth. The 2% substrate concentration gave the highest enzyme activity of 0.58IU/ml and 0.54IU/ml for <em>A. niger</em> and <em>A. fumigatus</em> respectively. The increase was linear, the higher the concentration of the substrate, the higher the enzyme activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Aspergillus&nbsp; niger</em> and <em>A. fumigatus</em> have demonstrated potential of synthesizing hydrolytic cellulolytic enzymes and could be employed in the degradation of lignocellulosic wastes. These enzymes could find applications in different industries.</p> Ogbonna Abigail Ify, Ogbonna Ugoy Sonia Amarachi, Onyimba Isaac Amechi, Ugwu Eugene Ifeanyi, Njoku Andrew Ikechukwu, M. Madu Josephine, Ogbonna Chike Innocent Chuks, Otafu Esther Ehi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000