Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering <p><strong>Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJBGE/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>). The area of interest of AJBGE includes but not restricted to all aspects of Biotechnology, Genetics, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Bioenergy, Biosafety, Biosecurity, Bioethics, etc. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p>This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering) (Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering) Thu, 07 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Regulatory Role of Nucleus in miRNA Processing at Early Developmental Stages in Plants <p>Nuclear dicing bodies were found in plants as subcellular droplets of the Dicing complex that is involved in the creation of microRNA. They are also discovered to be liquid-liquid phase-separated condensates with intrinsically disordered areas of the Dicing component SERRATE driving phase separation and miRNA processing. This study aims to highlight the Regulatory role of nucleus in miRNA processing at early developmental stages in plants. Environmental and developmental factors may influence the expression of various microRNAs in plants.</p> Rao Saad Rehman, Syed Ali Zafar, Mujahid Ali, Hassan Bashir, Asad Nadeem Pasha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Larvicidal Potential of Conidia Suspension of Aspergillus flavus against Anopheles sp. <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study was aimed to investigate the larvicidal potential of the conidia suspension of <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> against <em>Anopheles</em> mosquitoes.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong><em>Aspergillus flavus </em>was isolated from soil using soil suspension procedures and was identified using morphological characteristics. Bioassay was performed to determine the efficacy of <em>Aspergillus flavus </em>conidial suspension against early 4<sup>th</sup> instar larvae of <em>Anopheles</em> mosquito using WHO-2005 protocol with slight modifications.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Four different concentrations of conidial suspension; 3.3×10<sup>6</sup>, 3.3×10<sup>5</sup>, 3.3×10<sup>4</sup> and 3.3×10<sup>3</sup>conidia/ml were tested, and the results showed that; mortality increases with the increase in conidial concentrations and exposure time. The lowest mortality (12%) was recorded at 3.3×10<sup>3 </sup>conidia/mL and 24-hours post exposure whereas the highest mortality (78%) was recorded at 3.3×10<sup>6</sup> conidia/mL and 72-hours post exposure. LC 50% and 90% for the larvae was found to be 1.6×10<sup>8</sup> and 4.2×10<sup>9</sup>conidia/mL at 24-hours; 2.0×10<sup>4</sup> and4.0×10<sup>5</sup> conidia/mL at 48-hours; 1.3×10<sup>3</sup> and 3.2×10<sup>4</sup> conidia/mL at 72-hours.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>These results indicated that <em>Aspergillis flavus </em>conidia suspension are pathogenic to immature stage of <em>Anopheles</em> mosquito and could be suggested as a biological control for mosquito management.</p> Abdulrahman Itopa Suleiman, Abdullahi Abdulkadir Imam, Nasir Sirajo Sadi, Muhammad Ali Gambo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Detection and Identification of Plant Viruses Causing Severe Losses in Yam Production in Cross River State, Nigeria <p>Yam (<em>Dioscorea</em>&nbsp;spp.) is an important food crop cultivated for its edible tubers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Surveys were conducted in during the 2022 planting season in Cross River State to detect and identify viruses infecting yams. Twenty-three farms were surveyed located across the three senatorial districts. Sampling was carried out on <em>Dioscorea rotundata, D. cayenensis, D. alata,</em>and<em> D. Dumetorum </em>and tested using the multiplex-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by gene sequence/phylogenetic analysis. The 23 samples tested positive for multiplex-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).&nbsp; Eight samples tested positive for Yam mosaic virus (YMMV), 10 samples tested for <em>Cucumber mosaic virus</em> (CMV) and 5 samples tested positive for <em>Yam mild mosaic virus</em> (YMMV). The sequence obtained for each sample when compared with other virus sequences available in the NCBI GenBank through BLASTn revealed that CMV was the predominant representing 43.5% of total viruses identified with sequence homologue ranging between 87 and 98% followed by YMV which constituted 34.8% of total viruses identified with sequence homologue ranging from 90 to 98%. YMMV was the least predominant constituting 21.7% of viruses identified with sequence homologue ranging from 90 to 98%. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that YMV clustered together with some potyvirus isolates found within the Africa sub-region while YMMV clustered with other potyviruses outside Africa. This finding explains that YMV recorded a higher percentage of infection than YMMV. This is the first report of wide-scale detection of viruses infecting yams in Nigeria.</p> O. I. Eyong, E. E. Ekpiken, O. I. Onen, D. A. Akoli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis of Genetic Variation and Chemical Variability in Commonly Available Egyptian and Chinese Garlic <p>Three garlic varieties (Sids 40, Sids 50 and Chinese) comparisons of oil composition and genetic variation of three garlic cultivars (<em>Allium sativum L.</em>) commonly used for cooking, pharmaceutical industries and essential oil production in the Egyptian market. Garlic essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and then analyzed for chemical components by GC-MS. Also, Phenolic content, Alliin content and DPPH% radical-scavenging activity (IC<sub>50</sub>) and determine the genetic diversity in different of the three garlic varieties and to investigate the genetic distances between them were evaluated. The results, in general, indicated that the variety of Sids 40 was distinguished in the studied traits. IC<sub>50</sub> value was arranged as follows: Sids 40, Sids 50 and Chinese. The phenol content of the three garlic varieties were arranged in terms of their phenol content from highest to lowest, as follows: Sids 40 (396.50 μg/g), Sids 50 (366.58 μg/g) and Chinese (296.92 μg/g). The highest of Alliin content,&nbsp; was Sids 40 with a content of 91.53 mg 100/ml, followed by the Chinese variety at a content of 88.70 mg 100/ml, and the least of them was Sids 50 with a content 60.43 mg 100/ml. The highest similarity value (1.00) was recorded between Sids 40 genotypes and Sids 50 genotypes, while the lowest similarity value (0.610) was recorded between China genotypes and Sids 50 genotypes. On the other hand there was no similarity between China genotypes and Sids 40 genotypes.</p> Zeinab A. Abd Elhafez, Omneya F. Abu El-Leel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 05 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Biological Activities of Cu-Nanoparticles from Aspergillus niger <p>Nanotechnology has received tremendous attention because its applications have expanded in a variety of fields. The biological route for the synthesis of nanoparticles become more demanding as it is eco-friendly, low cost, and not time taking procedure. In this research, <em>Aspergillus niger</em> filtrate is used as a reducing agent to biosynthesize copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) under controlled parameters i.e., pH, temperature, and time. Synthesized CuNPs were confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and further characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The UV- Visible spectroscopy exhibit a maximum peak of 540nm which confirmed the formation of CuNPs. FTIR showed two maximum peaks 3339cm<sup>-1 </sup>and 1638 cm<sup>-1</sup>. These peaks represent the presence of O-H stretching and –C=C- stretching respectively. The size ranges of CuNPs between 15nm-85nm with spherical shapes. The anti-microbial activity was tested against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and showed the significant antibacterial potential of CuNPs. Radical scavenging activity was confirmed by DPPH assay. The results of antioxidant activity indicated the IC50 value of CuNPs was 59.10ug/ml. Thus, CuNPs synthesized through a biological route could act as good antibacterial as well as antioxidant agents.</p> Syed Bilal Hussain, Romesa Bashir, Sadaf Noor, Muhammad Zubair ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 African Swine Fever Virus: A Review on Its Heterogeneity, Immunomodulatory Property and Its Extent of Virulence <p>African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a causative agent of a lethal haemorrhagic disease in domestic pigs <em>(Sus scrofa domesticus), </em>with a mortality rate of 100% at per-acute infections. ASFV have no vaccine available and is contagiously stable with direct transmission through infected swines, and indirectly from soft ticks&nbsp;(<em>Ornithodoros)</em>. ASFV, display a complex genetic heterogeneity that invigorates its virulency and replication within host macrophage. Along with the on-going discovery of a clinical vaccine, evaluation and deciphering of the proper innate and cellular response using wild type homologous and heterologous ASFV challenges against pigs immunised with live attenuated ASFV or subunits vaccines of ASFV antigen has been the strategy apart from in-vitro studies using Porcine macrophage (PAMs) infection in culture. The ASFV essential and non-essential genes are involved in viral multiplication and immunosuppression along with stimulation of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore understanding ASFV virulence machinery, the various immune effectors it evokes and its heterogeneity of infection that contributes to the different clinical manifestations are important parameters in progression towards the design of an effective vaccine and therapeutics. The major ASFV structural and virulence regulatory components in host evasion; along with immunisation experiments are comprehensive retrospections in ASFV infection and cure.</p> Jeffrey Mukhim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 22 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000