Effect of Germinated Soybean Flour Supplementation on the Physico-Chemical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Instant Kunun gyada Powder
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 1,
Kunun gyada is a traditional Nigerian cereal porridge commonly made from rice flour and groundnut milk. Instant Kunun gyada powder was developed from blends of flours from rice, germinated soybean, sesame and groundnut paste. Five different formulations of instant Kunun gyada powder were investigated namely; KGP1 60:40 ratio of groundnut paste to rice flour (control); KGP2, 60:30:5:5 (groundnut paste to rice flour to germinated soy flour and to roasted sesame flour); KGP3 60:30:10 (groundnut paste to rice flour and to germinated soy flour); KGP4 60:25:10:5 (groundnut paste to rice flour to germinated soy flour and to roasted sesame flour) and KGP5 60:25:15 (groundnut paste to rice flour and to germinated soy flour). The slurry of the mixtures was drum-dried and the product was then ground and sieved (0.5mm mesh size). The protein content of the instant Kunun gyada powder increased from 3.61% - of 14.44%. In terms of microbiological quality no Salmonella, coliforms or yeast and molds growth were detected in the finished product. The water activity was 0.54 while the peroxide value ranged from 0.19 – 0.47 mEq/kg. The products were acceptable to consumers, in all sensory attributes evaluated.
- Instant Kunun gyada
- germinated soybean flour
- nutritional and microbial quality
How to Cite
FAO. Cereal Supply and Demand Brief; 2017.
Nkama I, Iliyas A, Jato A. Studies on the preparation and nutrient composition of kunun gyada a traditional Nigerian groundnut-cereal-based weaning food. Energy (kcal). 1995;72(62):59-60.
Nkama I. Traditional methods of production of high protein energy foods from grains legumes in the North-Eastern States of Nigeria. Annals of Borno. University of Maiduguri Press. 1994;10: 138-148.
Ogbonna AI, Akueshi EU, Aguiyi UB, Onosemuode A, Emefiene MM, Okunuga DO. Nutrient analysis of indigenous fortified baby weaning foods from Nigerian Cereals. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;21(1):41-45.
Ndidi US, Ndidi CU, Olagunju A, Muhammad A, Billy FG, Okpe O. Proximate antinutrients and mineral composition of raw and processed (Boiled and Roasted) Sphenostylis stenocarpa seeds from Southern Kaduna Northwest Nigeria. ISRN Nutrition; 2014.
Gaffa T, Jideani IA, Nkama I. Traditional production consumption and storage of Kunu - A non alcoholic cereal beverage. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2002; 57(1):73–81.
Paucar-Menacho LM, Berhow MA, Mandarino JMG, Chang YK, De Mejia EG. Effect of time and temperature on bioactive compounds in germinated Brazilian soybean cultivar BRS 258. Food Research International. 2010;43(7):1856-1865.
Huang X, Cai W, Xu B. Kinetic changes of nutrients and antioxidant capacities of germinated soybean (Glycine max L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) with germination time. Food Chemistry. 2014;143:268-276.
Kouton SE, Amoussa-Hounkpatin W, Ballogou VY, Soumanou MM. Nutritional microbiological and rheological characteristics of porridges prepared from infant flours based on germinated and fermented cereals fortified with soybean. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2017;6(10):4838-4852.
Kumar V, Rani A, Pandey V, Chauhan GS. Changes in lipoxygenase isozymes and trypsin inhibitor activity in soybean during germination at different temperatures. Food Chemistry. 2006;99(3):563-568.
Bau HM, Villaume C, Méjean L. Effects of soybean (Glycine max) germination on biologically active components nutritional values of seeds and biological characteristics in rats. Die Nahrung. 2000;44(1):2–6.
Kim SL, Lee JE, Kwon YU, Kim WH, Jung GH, Kim DW, Hwang TY. Introduction and nutritional evaluation of germinated soy germ. Food Chemistry. 2013;136(2):491-500.
Oduro I, Ellis WO, Sulemana A, Oti-Boateng P. Breakfast meal from breadfruit and soybean composite; 2007.
Shin DJ, Kim W, Kim Y. Physicochemical and sensory properties of soy bread made with germinated steamed and roasted soy flour. Food Chemistry. 2013;141(1):517-523.
Gandhi N, Singh B, Sharma S, Kapoor S. Extrusion process optimization of corn starch to develop instant vegetable soup mix. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2018;7(2):2886-2910.
Tamime AY. (Ed.). Dairy powders and concentrated products. John Wiley & Sons; 2009.
Black C, Heo Y, Laplante T, Westfall P, Lamb C, Engle M, Rangavajla N. U.S. Patent Application No. 15/328 248; 2017.
Ishwarya SP, Anandharamakrishnan C. Spray drying. Handbook of Drying for Dairy Products. 2017;56.
Majzoobi M, Kaveh Z, Farahnaky A. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels. Food Chemistry. 2016;196 720-725.
Sindawal Siddeswari, Suvendu Bhattacharya. Instantization and agglomeration of foods. Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies. 2015;2015:313-336.
Nielsen SS. Food analysis laboratory manual (3 rd Edition). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publication. 2003;69-71.
Mbaeyi-Nwaoha IE, Onweluzo JC. Functional properties of Sorghum (S. bicolor L)- Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) Flour blends and Storage Stability of Flaked Breakfast formulated from blends. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2013;12(4):382-397
Mao Xiaoying Yufei Hua. Composition structure and functional properties of protein concentrates and isolates produced from walnut (Juglans regia L.). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012;13.2 (2012):1561-1581.
Nwanekezi EC, Ohagi NC, Afam-Anene OC. Nutritional and organoleptic quality of infant food formulations made from natural and solid state fermented tubers (cassava sprouted and unsprouted yam)-soybean flours blend. Nig. Food J. 2001;19:55- 62.
AOCS. Official methods and recommended practices of the American oil chemist’s society 4th edition AOCS Press Champaign Illinois UAS; 1989.
Akoth OC, Oduor S, Mwasareu MA, Ochieng JK, Mathooko FM. Development of instant breakfast cereals from optimized flour of pearl millet red and white sorghum. Journal of Applied Bioscience. 2012;51:3559-3566.
Nishida C, Uauy R, Kumanyika S, Shetty P. The joint WHO/FAO expert consultation on diet nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: process product and policy implications. Public Health Nutrition. 2004;7(1A; SPI):245-250.
Terna G, JIANI. Nutrient and sensory qualities of kunun zaki from different saccharification agents. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2002;53(2):109–115.
Filli KB, Nkama I, Jideani VA, Abubakar UM. The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of millet–cowpea based fura. European Journal of Food Research & Review. 2012;2(1):1-23.
Lanna Anna Cristina Ines C.J Maria Goreti de Almeda Oliveira Everaldo GB, Maurillio AM. Effect of temperature on polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in soybean seeds. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2005;17.2 (2005):213-222.
Nahemiah Danbaba Iro Nkama, Mamudu Halidu Badau. Application of response surfac e methodology (RSM) for the production and optimization of extruded instan t porridge from broken rice fractions blended with cowpea. Int J Nutr Food Sci. 2016;5:105-116.
FAO/WHO Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.. Fats and oils in human nutrition. Report of a joint expert consultation. Rome (FAO Food and nutrition paper No. 57; 1994.
Abioye VF, Babarinde GO, Adesigbin MK. Chemical physico-chemical and sensory properties of soy-plantain flour. African Journal of Food Science. 2011;5(April): 176–180.
Tiencheu B, Achidi AU, Fossi BT, Tenyang N, Ngongang EFT, Womeni HM. Formulation and nutritional evaluation of instant weaning foods processed from maize (Zea mays) Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Red Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Mackerel Fish Meal (Scomber scombrus). American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016;4(5):149-159.
Tarmizi AHA, Ismail R. Comparison of the frying stability of standard palm olein and special quality palm olein. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 2008; 85(3):245-251.
Gunstone FD. Disappearance. Lipid Technology. 2008;20(2):48-48.
Nzikou JM, Matos L, Bouanga-Kalou G, Ndangui CB, Pambou-Tobi NPG, Kimbonguila A, Desobry S. Chemical composition on the seeds and oil of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in Congo-Brazzaville. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2009; 1(1):6-11.
Lukaski HC. Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance. Nutrition. 2004;20(7):632-644.
Gharibzahedi SMT, Jafari SM. The importance of minerals in human nutrition: Bioavailability food fortification processing effects and nanoencapsulation. Trends in Food Science & Technology; 2017.
Rahman MM, Shahjadee UF, Rupa AZ, Hossain MN. Nutritional and microbiological quality of germinated soy flour. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 2016;51(3):167-174.
Marın S, Guynot ME, Neira P, Bernado M, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ. Risk assessment of the use of sub-optimal levels of weak-acid preservatives in the control of mould growth on bakery products. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2002;79(3): 203-211.
Abstract View: 115 times
PDF Download: 59 times