Main Article Content
Aims: The aim of the study was to determinate the CYP1A2 gene rs762551 polymorphism responsible for caffeine in healthy individuals.
Study Design: DNA was isolated from saliva samples taken from healthy individuals. Analysis of A and C allele distribution of CYP1A2 gene rs762551 polymorphism was performed by amplifying DNA regions from individuals.
Place and Duration of Study: It was carried out between February 2019 and April 2020 in Üsküdar University Medical Genetics and Molecular Diagnosis Laboratory.
Methodology: Thirty healthy individuals without age, gender, height and weight restrictions were included in our study. DNA analysis was performed on the Real-Time PCR device by taking saliva samples from individuals.
Results: The genotype distribution of this study was 13 people (43.33%) had AA, 9 people had AC (30%) and 8 people have a CC genotype (26.67%) respectively. According to the results of the study, individuals with the AA genotype are in the majority, but since there are more individuals with the C allele, those who metabolize caffeine slowly are in the majority. In our study, statistical analysis was not performed because it was aimed only to determine the allele gene distribution.
Conclusion: Studies show an association between caffeine and disease. However, the genetic reasons for this relationship have not been fully understood yet. Therefore, more studies are needed on larger samples of genes that metabolize caffeine. Caffeine-related diseases can be prevented by detecting variations on caffeine genes of healthy individuals with more studies in the future.
DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01561.x. PMID: 20492310
Babu KM, Church R, Lewander W. Energy drinks: The new eye-opener for adolescents. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 2008;9:35.
Şirin EF, Çağlayan HS. The use of energy drinks in athletes, Journal of Standard. 2005;44:519.
Holmgren P, Norden-Pettersson L, Ahlner J. Caffeine fatalities--four case reports. Forensic Sci Int. 2004; 139(1):71-3.
van Dijk AE, Olthof MR, Meeuse JC, Seebus E, Heine RJ, van Dam RM. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(6):1023-5.
Epub 2009 Mar 26.
Report A. Position of the american dietetic association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J am Diet a Assoc. 2008;108:553-561.
Yücesoy B, Kapici S, Sercan C, Yigitbasi T, Emekli N, Ulucan K, Determination of the distribution of the rs2069514 and rs762551 alleles of the CYP1A2 Gene related to caffeine metabolism in professional athletes. European Journal of Biology. 2017;76(2):69-73.
Akça F, Aras D, Arslan E. Caffeine, its mechanisms of action and effects on physical performance. Spormetre. 2018; 16(1):1-12.
Nieber K. The impact of coffee on health. Planta Med. 2017;83(16):1256-1263.
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-115007. PMID: 28675917
Taskın İçen I. The relationship between early breast cancer and FGFR2 and TP53 single nucleotid polymorphisms in the East and Southeast Anatolia Region, Fırat University; 2017.
Guest N, Corey P, Vescovi J, El-Sohemy A. Caffeine, CYP1A2 genotype, and endurance performance in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50(8):1570-1578.
DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001596. PMID: 29509641
Alyakut Ö, Küçükkömürler S. Caffeine in Turkish cuisine. 17th Traditional Tourism Symposium. 2018;254-264.
Southward K, Rutherfurd-Markwick K, Badenhorst C, Ali A. The role of genetics in moderating the inter-individual differences in the ergogenicity of caffeine. Nutrients. 2018;10(10):1352.
Nelson DR. Cytochrome P450 nomenclature; 2004.
Methods Mol Biol. 2006;320:1-10.
Song SJ, Choi S, Park T. Decaffeinated green coffee bean extract attenuates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;718379.
DOI: 10.1155/2014/718379. PMID: 24817902
Turkey Statistical Institute, Turkey Health Interview Survey; 2019.
Accessed 28.12. 2019.
Robertson TM, Clifford MN, Penson S, Williams P, Robertson MD. Postprandial glycaemic and lipaemic responses to chronic coffee consumption may be modulated by CYP1A2 polymorphisms. Br J Nutr. 2018;119(7):792-800.
Platt DE, Ghassibe-Sabbagh M, Salameh P, Salloum AK, Haber M, Mouzaya F et al. Caffeine impact on metabolic syndrome components is modulated by a CYP1A2 variant. Ann Nutr Metab. 2016;68(1): 1-11.
Epub 2015 Nov 21.
Klein CS, Clawson A, Martin M, Saunders MJ, Flohr JA, Bechtel MK et al. The effect of caffeine on performance in collegiate tennis players. J. Caffeine Res. 2012; 2:111–116.
Güneş A, Özbey G, Vural EH, Uluoğlu C, Scordo MG, Zengil H et al. Influence of genetic polymorphisms, smoking, gender and age on CYP1A2 activity in a turkish population. Pharmacogenomics. 2009; 10:769-778.
Arici M, Özhan G. The genetic profiles of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 enzymes as susceptibility factor in xenobiotic toxicity in turkish population. Saudi Pharm J. 2017;25(2):294-297.
Epub 2016 Jun 16.
Song YL, Wang L, Ren J, Xu ZH. CYP1A2-163C/A (Rs762551) polymorphism and bladder cancer risk: A case-control study, Genet Mol Res. 2016;26:15.
Altaylı E, Güneş S, Yılmaz AF, Goktas S, Bek Y. CYP1A2, CYP2D6, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms in patients with bladder cancer in a turkish population. Int Urol Nephrol. 2009;41(2): 259-66.
Epub 2008 Aug 9.
Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Satija A, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circulation. 2014;129(6): 643-59.
Cheng B, Liu X, Gong H, Huang L, Chen H, Zhang X et al. Coffee components inhibit amyloid formation of human Islet amyloid polypeptide in vitro: possible link between coffee consumption and diabetes mellitus. J Agric Food Chem. 2011; 59(24):13147-55.
Epub 2011 Nov 21.
Takami H, Nakamoto M, Uemura H, Katsuura S, Yamaguchi M, Hiyoshi M et al. Inverse correlation between coffee consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome: baseline survey of the Japan multi-ınstitutional collaborative cohort (j-mıcc) study in tokushima, japan. J Epidemiol / Japan Epidemiological Association. 2013;23(1):12-20.
Epub 2012 Oct 6.
O’Keefe JH, Bhatti SK, Patil HR, DiNicolantonio JJ, Lucan SC, Lavie CJ. Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardiometabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality. Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(12):1043-1051.
Epub 2013 Jul 17.
Palatini P, Benetti E, Mos L, Garavelli G, Mazzer A, Cozzio S, et al. Association of coffee consumption and CYP1A2 polymorphism with risk of impaired fasting glucose in hypertensive patients. European Journal of Epidemiology, 2015;30(3):209-17.
Epub 2015 Jan 17.
Ohnaka K, Ikeda M, Maki T, Okada T, Shimazoe T, Adachi M et al. Effects of 16-week consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee on glucose metabolism in a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:207426.
Epub 2012 Nov 5.
Sözlü S, Yılmaz B, Acar Tek N. Coffee Consumption and Relation with some Diseases, Sdu Journal of Health Sciences Institute. 2017;8(2).
Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, Rotstein J, Hugenholtz A, Feely M. Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit Contam. 2003;20(1):1-30.
DOI: 10.1080/0265203021000007840. PMID: 12519715.