Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Effect of Medicago sativa and Moringa oleifera on Selected Bacteria Isolates

Full Article PDF Review History

Published: 2023-08-09

Page: 115-122

G. E. Ibelegbu *

Federal Polytechnic Ohodo, Enugu State, Nigeria.

C. G. Ezeagwula

Abia State Polytechnic Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.

N. C. Oji

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


In vitro antibacterial activities of the crude leaf extract of Moringa oleifera and Medicago sativa were investigated against some bacterial isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) using the agar well diffusion and broth dilution techniques. The ethanolic crude extract of both plants exhibited significant inhibitory action against all the isolates tested at an initial concentration of 200 mg/ml except for Bacillus cereus. The minimum inhibitory concentrations exerted by the ehthanolic extract of Moringa oleifera against the bacterial isolate ranged from 6.25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml with Escherichia coli recording the least while Medicago sativa varied from 12.5 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml. the plant leaf extract compared favourably with the control antibiotics used in the study. The phytochemical compounds observed in the leaf extracts are flavonoids, tannin, terpenoids, saponins and alkaloids. Tannin was the phytochemical that had the least concentration in the leaves of the plants. The quantitative yield of the bioactive compounds of the leaf extracts showed that Medicago sativa has highest yield of flavonoid at 3.81% yield and 4.51% for Moringa oleifera. The significant antibacterial activities exhibited by the ethanolic extract of the plants confirmed the therapeutic potentials of these plants in the treatment of various infections in herbal medicine.

Keywords: Ethanolic extract, antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration, leaf extract, phytochemicals

How to Cite

Ibelegbu , G. E., C. G. Ezeagwula, and N. C. Oji. 2023. “Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Effect of Medicago Sativa and Moringa Oleifera on Selected Bacteria Isolates”. Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering 6 (2):115-22.


Download data is not yet available.


Rakhi D, Ranju K, Rezina P, Riskav D, Sarashwati K, Ravi BS, Roshan KY. Moringa oleifera: Review on herbal healing properties and nutritional values. International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research. 2023;7(1):20–34.

Garga MA, Manga SB, Rabah AB, Tahir H, Ahmad M, Abdullahi HA, et al. Antibacterial activities and phytochemical screening of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves and seed extract on Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah. 2019;7(11):276–284.

Mansoor K, Fatemeh K, Majid AS, Abolfazi G, Ahmad MK. phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial effects of Medicago sativa, Onosma sericeum, Paretaria judaicaâ L., Phlomis persica and Echinophora playcoba DC on Enterococcus faecalis. Biomedical Research Therapy. 2018;5(1):1941–1951.

Efrat H, Lumila Y, Boris K, Marina N, Shimon B, Faina N. antimicrobial effect of phytochemicals from edible plants. Advances of Antimicrobial in Bioengineering. 2021;9(11):2089–2099.

Rehab MAE. phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of Medicago sativa (Alfaalfa) as source of animal food against some animal pathogen. Global Veterinaria. 2015;14(1):136–141.

Ehab AF, Azza SM, Abu E, Mai MK. antibacterial efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf extract against pyogenic bacteria isolated from dromedary camel (Camelus dromedaries) abscess. Veterinary World. 2019;12(6):802–808.

Nivedita P, Pinal P, Dhara P, Sharav D, Dhananjay M. phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera. International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science. 2014;4(2):27–34.

Nwaeze EI, Onyishi MC. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and methanolic fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and its combination with disc antibiotics against clinical isolates of bacteria and fungi. Journal of Rural and Tropical Public Health. 2010;9:1–6.

Ekwueme FN, Nwodo OFC, Joshua PE, Nwokocha C, Eluka PE. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract of Senna mimosoides: In vitro leukocytes mobilization induced by inflammatory stimulus. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2015;4 (5):1176–1188.

Çileizoğlu BN, Yalçin E, Çavuşoğlu K, Kuloğu SS. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of Nerium oleander L. extract associated with toxicity profile. Scientific Report. 2022;12:21421.

Amabye GT, Tadesse FM. Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera available in the market of Mekella. Journal of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2016;2(1):23–26.

Khalid S, Shahzad A, Basharat N, Abubakar M, Anwar P. Phytochemical screening and analysis of selected medicinal plants in Gujrat. Journal of Phytochemistry and Biochemistry. 2018; 2(1):24-31.

Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituent of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4:685–688.

Kumar GVP, Subrahmanyam SN. Phytochemical analysis in vitro screening of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of combined hydroalcoholic seed extract of four selected folklore Indian medicinal plants. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 2013;5(91 0):168–174.

Musa DA, Nwodo OFC, Ojogbare E. Phytochemical antibacterial and toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of Euclayptus camaldulenis Dehnh. Asian Journal Plant Science and Research. 2011;1(3):1–10.

Cushine TP, Lamb AJ. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2005;26(5):343–356.

Iroha IR, Lang DC, Ayogu TE, Oji AE, Ugbo EC. Screening for anti-typhoid activity of some medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010;4(12):860– 864.

Liu R, Zhang H, Yuan M, Zhou J, Tu Q, Liu JJ, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of apigenin derivatives as antibacterial and antiproliferative agents. Molecules. 2013;18(9):11496-511.

Bishnu JU, Sunil L, Anuja S. Antibacterial properties of different medicinal plants; Ocimum santum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Xanthoxylim armatum and Origanum masorana. Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and technology. 2009; 5:143–150.