Main Article Content
Mosquito species of the Anopheles gambiae complex represent the major vectors of human malaria and they pose an enormous burden on global health and economies. Every year 300–500 million people are infected by malaria and over a million people die as consequence of Plasmodium parasite infections. Disease endemic countries often do not have the economic resources and the logistics to sustain control efforts like the massive and prolonged use of insecticides, the use of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITN), Indoor Residual Sprays (IRS), Larviciding (abortion of metamorphosis) and adequate environmental sanitation. New control strategies that have sustainable effects are desperately needed. This article, therefore, considered the unprecedented effort aimed at generating new molecular tools and a comprehensive knowledge of biology and the genetics of Anopheline mosquitoes which has culminated in the sequencing of the A. gambiae genome and development of gene transfer technology for a series of vectors species. The article also looked into the molecular advances that have been made to express genes that can block the transmission of Plasmodium in model systems or express traits facilitating the implementation of sterile insect techniques for vector control.