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Background: The epidemiological significance of Salmonella species and Giardia lamblia co-infections of childhood diarrhoea differs substantially between regions depending on socio-economic conditions in the prevalence of different categories of diarrhoeagenic disease associated with diarrhoea among under 5 populations, medicinal plants extracts has increasingly been advocated in productions of antimicrobial agents as resistance with synthetic drugs increases.
Methodology: The phytochemicals constituents obtained from Aloe vera and Hyptis suaveolens were investigated to evaluate their medicinal potentials, the screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols. The study was conducted between June, 2018 and February, 2019 in an attempt to ascertain the efficacies of Aloe vera and Hyptis suaveolens individually and in combined against diarrhoea infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Salmonella species in under five children in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Anti-giardial activity was carried out in an in-vitro susceptibility assays method on Giardia lamblia and antibacterial activity was carried out by Kirby-Bauer method on Salmonella species. Parasites mortality was determined by counting in hemocytometer under a light microscope and zone of inhibitions produced against the bacteria were determined and subjected to descriptive statistics and inferential statistical analysis to determine their significance at 5% level using SPSS version 23. Means were separated using DMRT (P≤0.05).
Results: The results obtained showed that water extracts of Aloe vera and Hyptis suaveolens plants singly and in combinations had inhibitory effects on Giardia lamblia and Salmonella species. Shows that Aloe vera extracts on Salmonella species exhibited good zone of inhibitions 0.302±18.00, Hyptis suaveolens extracts 0.315±19.67 and the combined extracts 0.413±30.00. On Giardia lamblia, shows better activities with Aloe vera extracts 0.002±0.505, Hyptis suaveolens extracts 0.002±0.478 and the combined extracts 0.002±0.643. In all the cases, plants, concentrations and time were determinants factors for the anti-giardial and antibacterial activity.
Conclusion: Hence, Hyptis suaveolens extracts have better activities than extracts of Aloe vera while the combined extracts shows more better activities of antibacterial, Aloe vera have better activities than Hyptis suaveolens extracts while the combined extracts shows more better activities of antigiardial. Therefore, these plants possess antimicrobial potentials.